Computer Network : Definition, Components, Use, and Features

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A computer network can be said to be a formation of devices connected via links. Then what is a computer network? What are the components? & How is the use of personal computer network? As well as what features are contained in a computer network? Let’s follow the review of the article with the title Computer Network : Definition, Components, Uses and Features. .

What is a Computer Network?

Computer Networks are a group of computers that are connected to each other through wires, optical fibres or optical links so that many devices can interact with each other through the network. The goal according to personal computer networks is to spread resources between a large number of devices. In terms of personal computer network technology, there are several types of networks that vary from simple to complex. The main components of a computer network

The following are the main components of a personal computer network.

National Interface Card (NIC)

The National Interface Card is a device that helps computers communicate with other devices. The National Interface Card contains a hardware address, the data-link layer protocol uses this address to identify systems on the network so as to transfer data to a valid destination.

NICs can support transfer speeds of 10,100 to 1000 Mb/s. The MAC address or physical address is encoded in the network card chip assigned by IEEE to uniquely identify the network card. The MAC address is stored on PROM (Programmable read-only memory).

There are 2 types of NICs, namely:

  • Wireless NIC. All modern laptops use a Wireless NIC. In Wireless NIC, the connection is made using an antenna that uses radio wave technology.
  • Wired NIC. The cable uses a Wired NIC to transfer data over the media.
  • Hub

    A hub is a piece of hardware that shares a network connection between multiple devices. When a personal computer requests some news from a network, the personal computer first sends the request to the Hub via cable. The hub will broadcast this request to the entire network. All devices will investigate whether the request belongs to them or not. Otherwise, the request will be canceled.

    The processes used by the Hub consume more poly bandwidth and limit the amount of communication. Currently, the use of hubs has begun to be abandoned and replaced by more sophisticated computer personal network components such as Switch, Router.Switch

    A switch is a hardware device that connects several devices on a personal computer network. Switches contain more advanced features than Hubs. The switch contains an updated table that specifies on which data is transmitted or nir. The switch sends the message to the correct destination according to the physical address that is in the incoming message. The switch does not broadcast messages to all networks such as Hubs. It determines the device to whom the message will be sent. Therefore, we could reveal that the Switch provides a private connection between origin and destination. This speeds up the network. Cables and Connectors

    A cable is a transmission medium that transmits a communication signal. There are 3 types of cables:

  • Twisted pair cable: This is a high-speed cable that transmits data in excess of 1 Gbps or more.
  • Coaxial cable: The coaxial cable resembles a TV installation cable. Coaxial cables are more expensive than twisted pair cables, but provide high data transmission speeds.
  • Fibre optic cable: A fiber optic cable is a high-speed cable that transmits data using a beam of light. It provides a high data transmission rate compared to other cables. It is more expensive compared to other cables, so it is installed at the government level.
  • Router

    A router is a hardware device used to connect a LAN with an internet connection. Routers are used to receive, analyze, & forward incoming packets to other networks. Routers work at Layer three (Network layer) of the OSI Reference example. The router forwards packets based on the news available in the routing table. The router determines the best path of the available path for packet transmission.

    Here are the advantages based on the router.

    • Security: Information transmitted to the network will traverse all cables, but the only proprietary device already addressed can read the data.
    • Reliability: If the server stops working, the network shuts down, but there are no other affected networks served by the router.
    • Performance: Routers enhance network performance holistically. Suppose there are 24 workstations in the network making the same amount of traffic. This increases the traffic load in the network. The router divides a single network as 2 networks of 12 workstations each, reducing the traffic load by half.
    • Network coverage


    A modem is a hardware device that allows a personal computer to connect to the internet through an existing telephone line. The modem is not integrated with the motherboard rather than installed in the PCI slot found on the motherboard. Modem stands for Modulator/Demodulator. The function of the modem is to convert digital data as analog frequency through telephone lines.

    Based on the difference in transmission speed & speed, modems can be classified in the following categories:

    • Standard PC modem or Dial-up modem
    • Cellular Modems
    • Cable modem

    Use of Computer Networks

    The following is the use of a personal computer network.

    • Power origin sharing: Power origin sharing is the sharing of resources such as programs, printers, & data on between users on the network without the requirement of the physical location of the power origin & user.
    • Server-Client Model: The personal network of the computer is used in the server-client instance. The server is a personal central computer that is used to store information & is managed by the system administrator. The client is the machine used to access information stored on the server based on remote pauses.
    • Communication media: Computer networks behave to be a medium of communication between users. For example, a company containing more according to one computer has an email system that employees use for daily communication.
    • E-commerce: Personal computer networking is also important in business. We can do business through the internet. For example, do their business through the internet, that is, they do their business through the internet.

    Computer Network Features

    The following is a list of features of a personal computer network.

    • Communication speed
    • File sharing
    • Easy Back up and Roll back
    • Software and Hardware Sharing
    • Security
    • Scalability
    • Reliability

    Communication Speed

    The network provides us to communicate over the network using a fast & efficient way. For example, we can do video conferencing, email messages, and others over the internet. Therefore, computer networks are a beautiful way to develop our new knowledge and outlook. File Sharing

    Sharing archives is one of the primary profits based on a network of personal computers. Personal computer networks provide us to develop files with each other. Easy Back up and Roll back

    Because the archive is stored on the primary server located at the center, it is easy to take a backup from the main server. Software and Hardware Sharing

    We can install the application on the primary server, as a result of which the user can access the application centrally. So, we don’t need to install software on every machine. Likewise, hardware can also be divided. Security

    The network enables security by ensuring that users have the right to access exclusive files & applications. Scalability

    Scalability means we can add new components to the network. The network must be scalable so that we can extend the network using adding new devices. However, the connection speed decreases & the data transmission speed decreases, this increases the probability of errors. This problem can be solved by using routing or switching devices. Reliability

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