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A computer network is a telecommunications network that allows personal computers to communicate with each other by exchanging data.  The purpose according to the computer network is that in order to achieve its goal, each part according to the computer network can request and provide services (services). The party who requests/gets the service claimed client (client) & who provides/sends the service is claimed server (server). This design is considered a client-server system, and is used in almost all personal computer networking applications.
Two computer items each have a network card, then connected via cable as well as wirelessly become a medium of data transmission, and there is still a network operating system software that will form a simple computer network. If you want to create a computer network that has a wider range, it is expected that additional equipment such as Hubs, Bridges, Switches, Routers, Gateways will become interconnection equipment. History[edit source]
Distributed Processing Model
The history of personal computer networks began based on the birth of the concept of personal computer networks in the 1940s in America which was initiated by a MODEL I personal computer development project in the Bell laboratory & Harvard University research class led by Professor Howard Aiken. At first the project was just to take advantage of a personal computer device that had to be used along with. To do several processes without poly throwing away when empty, a continuous process (Batch Processing) is created, as a result of which some programs are able to run on a computer using queue rules.
Then in the 1950s when the type of computer began to develop until the creation of a super personal computer, then a personal computer had to serve several available places (terminals), for that was discovered the concept of process distribution from when it was known as TSS (Time Sharing System). So for the first time the form of a personal computer network (network) was applied. In TSS systems some terminals are connected in series to a personal computer or other device that is connected to a network (host) computer. In the process of TSS began to be seen a collection of computer technology and telecommunications technology that in the beginning developed independently. The U.S. Department of Defense, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) established research aimed at connecting a number of personal computers to build organic networks in 1969. This research program is known as ARPANET. By 1970, there had been more than 10 personal computers that were successfully connected to each other so that they could communicate with each other and create a network. And in the 1970s, after the workload increased and the price of large personal computer devices began to feel very expensive, the concept of distributed processing began to be used. In this process multiple host computers do a large job in parallel to serve multiple terminals connected in series on each host computer. In the distribution process, it is absolutely necessary to have a deep cluster between computer technology & telecommunications, because in addition to the process that must be distributed , all host computers must serve their terminals at one command based on the central computer.
This is a Time Sharing System (TSS) Model
In 1972, Roy Tomlinson succeeded in perfecting an electronic mail show (email) that he created a year ago for ARPANET. The program was so easy to use, as a result it immediately became famous. In the same year of 1972, the icon at (@) was introduced as an important symbol that describes “at” or “in”. In 1973, the ARPANET personal computer network began to be developed widely outside the United States. The University College computer in London was the first computer located outside america to be a member of the Arpanet network. In the same year, namely 1973, 2 personal computer experts, namely Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn, presented a larger idea, which became the forerunner of the International Network (Internet) thought. This idea was presented for the first time at the University of Sussex. The next historic day was March 26, 1976, when the Queen of England successfully sent an e-mail from the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment to Malvern. A year ago, more than 100 computers joined the ARPANET to create a network.
Tom Truscott, Jim Ellis & Steve Bellovin, created the first newsgroups called USENET (User Network) in 1979. In 1981, France Telecom created something new by launching the first television phone, where people were able to call each other with a video link.
As the number of personal computers that make up the network is needed, an official protocol is needed that can be recognized & accepted by all networks. For this reason, in 1982 a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or better known as the Internet Protocol (IP) was created which we know until today. Meanwhile, in Europe a similar network known as the Europe Network (EUNET) has emerged that covers the Netherlands, England, Denmark, and Sweden. This EUNET network provides USENET electronic mail & newsgroup services.
To uniformize addresses on existing personal computer networks, in 1984 a Domain Naming System or domain name system was introduced, which we now know as DNS. Computers connected using an existing network have exceeded 1000 computers. In 1987, the number of computers connected to the network jumped 10-fold to more than 10000.
Computer networks continued to develop in 1988, Jarkko Oikarinen a Finnish person invented and introduced Internet Relay Chat or better known as using IRC which allows two or more people or more computer users to interact privately with messaging (Chat ). As a result, a year later the number of personal computers working with each other jumped 10 times. No less than 100000 computers form a network. The mid-1990s were the most historic year, when Tim Berners Lee designed an event of editors & explorers who could explore one another’s personal computers by creating networks. This program is considered Waring Wera Wanua or the World Wide Web.
Interconnected computers building networks have exceeded a million personal computers in 1992. And in the same year the term surfing appeared. And by 1994, sites on the internet had grown to 3000 page addresses, & for the first time shopping via the internet or virtual-shopping or e-retail arising on the site. In the same year Yahoo! was founded, which was also the birth year of Netscape Navigator 1.0.Classification[edit source]
Client-Server network model example