What is a Computer Network? – Best Informatics Engineering Study Program in North Sumatra

A computer network is a set of equipment (computers and / or devices) connected via cable, frequency, wave, or other means of data transportation, which create captions (archives), resources (CD-ROMs, printers, etc.) and services (internet access, email, chat, games).

Network components have exclusive and used functions of physical (hardware) characteristics. To choose it, it is necessary to consider the needs & financial origin of those who want to connect using the network, as a result of which the technical characteristics according to each network component must be known.

Server network components are computers that control the network & are responsible for allowing or not user access to the power origin, they also control whether a node can be part of the network or not.

The purpose of the server is to control the network operations and the services performed by each of these teams will depend on the network design. Workstation The name given to the personal computer that is connected to the network but cannot control it, as soon as the node or power origin is in it. Any personal computer can be a workstation, as long as it is connected & communicates in the network.

Network nodes are elements that are connected & communicated to the network; Peripherals that connect to a computer as nodes if connected to a network and can share services for user use, such as printers, folders. Network cards They have an integrated circuit card that is inserted into the expansion organ of the motherboard and which serves to receive cables that connect the personal computer to the personal computer network; As a result, all personal computers on the network can exchange news.

Transmission media?
These elements allow communication between 2 personal computers , they are cables that connect the personal computer and the information through it. Cables are a basic component of communication between personal computers. There are different types of cables & your choice will depend on your network communication needs.

  • Coaxial Cable
    Coaxial consists of a primary copper wire covered with a plastic layer surrounded by a reflective film that reduces interference, around which there is still a metal wire mesh and everything is covered by a rubber layer that protects the conductor from the outside.
  • UTP Cable
    Twisted pair UTP is the most poly variable used for network connections because of its low cost, because it allows seamless maneuverability and because it does not require special senses or is complicated to connect nodes on the network.
  • STP Cable
    Twisted pair STP has a metal mesh that covers each pair of cables, which is also coated using a reflective film that prevents interference.
  • FTP (Laminated Twisted Pair) – Twisted pairs of all protectors have a reflective film that covers each pair of cables.

Optical fiber is resistant to corrosion and high temperatures & thanks to casing protection, optical fiber can delay grand efforts on installation. The disadvantage of these cables is their high cost because their production requires high-quality glass in addition to being very fragile to handle during manufacturing.

A connector is an accessory that connects a cable to a network card located on a node. The connector function is very important because without it it is possible to use a cable to connect nodes to the network. Each transmission medium has a synchronous connector and thanks to it it is possible to receive or transmit news using the characteristics that allow the cable.
One USB can connect multiple peripherals using the same cable circuit.

Hub The term ‘hub’ refers to a multi-port repeater. This type of device only sends all the news it receives, as a result of which all devices connected to its port get this information. Hubs repeat all the information they receive and can be used to expand the network. However, because of this action, a large amount of unnecessary traffic can be sent to all devices on the network.

Router The English term source router can be translated into Spanish as a router or router, although it is sometimes also referred to as a router. This is a hardware product that allows the interconnection of equipment working on the framework of the network. It is responsible for choosing which route to use for each data packet on the computer network.

Bridges Bridge is the hardware used to connect two networks that operate in the same protocol. Unlike repeaters, which work in a physical level, bridges work in a logical level.

A modem is one peripheral error that has been as crucial based on time to time & only a few instances of a computer without a network do not include it.

Wireless communication is the transfer of news without a physical connection between the transmitter & receiver using the radio frequency spectrum (antenna) & hardware, software & various technologies to transmit facts.

WIFI is the latest version based on Wireless Fidelity, which is available for WLAN (wireless LAN). One of the wireless communication technologies that wears waves. This is paradoxical with the technology needed to disable access to available WiFi connections.

Infrared Infrared network connection allows an exclusive connection between two infrared-enabled devices without the need for a modem, cable, or network hardware. Instead, the two devices are aligned to create an infrared connection.

Bluetooth Short pause wireless network technology, used to connect devices to each other without a wired connection. Bluetooth devices are not expected & face to face with each other exclusively. This makes its use more flexible and allows communication between rooms in confined spaces. when Bluetooth sends it to data in a device connected to a cheap radio, within approximately ten to a hundred meters, using little power.

Network Topology
A network topology is a physical or logical arrangement in which a device or personal network node of a computer, printer, server, hub, switch, router, etc.

Interconnected with each other through the medium of communication.

  • a) Physical topology: It refers in the design of the transmission medium of this time network.
  • b) Logical topology: refers to the logical path that frequencies take through network nodes.

A network bus topology in the form of a bus or transmission line is a two-way communication line using a well-influenced termination point.

When a station emits, the signal dabbles on both sides of the transmitter to the entire station connected to the Bus until it reaches its stoppage. So when a station sends its message, it reaches all over the station, which is why Bus is claimed to be a transmission line.

The ring topology is characterized by a closed unidirectional path connecting the entire node. Depending on the access control to the media, an misaligned name is given for this topology: Loop; It is used to select the ring in which access control is centered (the station is responsible for controlling access to the network).

Star topologies are characterized by connecting entire nodes to a central controller. All transactions go through a central node, which is responsible for managing and controlling all communications.

The tree topology is a variant according to the star topology. As in the star, the tree node is connected to a central hub that controls network traffic. However, the entire device is privately connected to the hub center. Most of the devices are connected to a secondary hub, which is then connected to a central hub.

Finally, the network operating system must be reliable and be able to recover quickly based on failures. Depending on the manufacturer of the network operating system, network applications for desktop computers can be spiked or integrated into the computer’s own operating system. Network operating system software.

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